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Industrial solid wastes can be placed into two categories as biodegradable and non-degradable wastes.

  • Biodegradable wastes are generated by cotton mills, food processing units, paper mills, and textile factories, etc.
  • Non-biodegradable wastes are generated by thermal power plants which produce fly ash; Integrated iron and steel plants which produce blast furnace slag and steel melting slag. Metallurgical industries such as aluminium, zinc and copper produce anode mud and tailings. Fertilizer industries produce gypsum. Hazardous waste such as inflammables, composite explosives or highly reactive substance are produced by industries dealing in metals, chemicals, drugs, pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, rubber goods, etc. The disposal of non-biodegradable industrial solid waste, if not done by proper suitable method, may cause serious threat to the environment. Recent developments and new innovations have led to different uses of waste material. Now-a-days, fly ash and slag from steel industry is utilized by the cement industry. Large quantities of toxic wastes are usually destroyed by controlled incineration. Whereas small
    quantities are burnt along with factory garbage in open bins. Moreover, solid waste if not managed effectively, affects the components of the environment.


  • Fuel obtained from plastic waste has high octane rating. It contains no lead and is known as “green fuel”
  • Due to recent developments made in chemical arid textile industries, clothes will be made from recycled plastic waste. These will be available soon in the global textile market.
  • Our cities and towns face endless hours of power cut. We can also see piles of rotting garbage here and there. There is good news that we can get rid of both these problems simultaneously. A multinational company has developed a technology where electricity is produced from the garbage. The company has set up a pilot plant, where after removing ferrous metals, plastic, glass, paper, etc., from garbage, ids mixed with water. It is then cultured with bacterial species for producing methane, commonly known as biogas. The remaining product is used as manure and biogas is used to produce electricity.



  • Pollutant. Substance produced by natural source-or by human activity, which produces adverse effect on occurring in environment,
  • Environmental Chemistry. The branch .of chemistry which deals with the study of various chemical reactions occurring in environment.
  • Air Pollution. Any condition of atmosphere in which the presence of certain substances beyond certain concentration produce harmful effect on man and his environment.
  • Primary Pollutants. Pollutants which are emitted directly from the sources.
  • Secondary Pollutants. Pollutants which are formed in the atmosphere by chemical interaction among primary, pollutants.
  • Major Air Pollutants. Major air pollutants are: CO, SO2, SO3, NO2, NO, CES, H2S, particulates like, dust, smoke, lead salts, fly ash, asbestos dust, acid mist.
  • Ozome Layer. Ozone layer is present in stratosphere which protect earth from harmful u. v. radiation of sun. The CEC and oxide of nitrogen pose danger to ozone layer and become cause for its depletion.
  • Greenhouse Effect. Heating of atmosphere due to absorption of infrared radiation by carbon dioxide and other gases.
  • Smog. Smog is a mixture of smoke and fog of particulates. Principal constituents of classical smog are carbon soot. It has reducing nature.
  • Photochemical Smog. It is formed by photochemical reactions involving solar radiation. The
    principal constituents are O3 NO2 and some photochemical oxidants.



I. Objective Type Questions

Select the most appropriate choice from the options given as (a), (b), (c) and (d) after each question:

1. What is not correct about greenhouse effect?

a)      It results in global warming

b)      Carbon dioxide is one of main chemical species responsible for it

c)      It results in lowering of levels of ocean over the years

d)     CH4, O3 CFC also contribute to greenhouse effect.

2. Ozone in the stratosphere is depleted by

a)      CF2Cl2

b)      C9F16

c)      C6H6C16

d)     C6F6

3. A smog is essentially caused by the presence of

a)      O2 and O3

b)      O2 and N2

c)      O3 and N2

d)     Oxides of S and N.

4. Which of the following is responsible for depletion of ozone-layer in the upper strata of the atmosphere

a)      Polyhalogens

b)      Ferrocene

c)      Fullerencs

d)     Freons

5. Pick up the correct statement

a)      CO which is a major pollutant resulting from combustion of fuels in automobiles plays a major role in photochemical smog.

b)      Classical smog has an oxidising character while photochemical smog has reducing character.

c)      Photochemical smog occurs in day time whereas classical smog occur in morning hours.

d)     The level of ozone in the atmosphere goes down during formation of smog .

6. High concentration of fluoride is poisonous and harmful to bones and teeth at levels over

a)      1 ppm

b)      3 ppm

c)      5 ppm

d)     10 ppm.

7. Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?

a)      CO2

b)      CCl2F2

c)      O3

d)     N2

8. Which among the following does not cause water pollution?

a)      Automobile exhaust

b)      Plant nutrients

c)      Oxygen demanding wastes

d)     Disease causing agents.

9. Lung diseases are four times more in urban areas than rural areas. This is due to presence of which of the following in atmosphere?

a)      CO2

b)      SO2

c)      N2

d)     O2

10. In stratosphere decomposition and formation of ozone is continuous. Which free radical retards the formation of O3?

a)      CH3

b)      CI

c)      F

d)     Cl2.

II. Fill in the Blanks

11.Complete the following sentences by supplying appropriate words:

i.  pH of acid rain lies below …..

ii.  The part of environment which supports life is called …..

iii.  The part of atmosphere where temperature increases with increasing altitude is/are …..

iv.  The oxide of carbon which has no role to play in            photochemical smog is …..

v.  Lead pollution in the atmosphere is caused mainly by …..

vi.  Main constituents of acid rain are …..

vii.  The oxide of nitrogen is not present in atmosphere is …..

viii. Incomplete combustion of fuel, or carbon compound produces ….. which is toxic to humans.

III. Discussion Questions 

12. How does environmental pollution affect humans, plants and other materials?

13. What are natural and human sources of CO? What is sink for CO?

14. What are particulate pollutants? What is their role in air pollution? What measures can be taken to control it?

15. Name major air pollutants.

16.Describe the harmful effects of particulates in air.

17. What is greenhouse effect? Name the important gases responsible for greenhouse effect.

18. (i) What is acid rain? What are its adverse effects?

       (ii) Why lakes with lime stone deposits experience less adverse effect from acid rain?

19. What are smogs? Give harmful effects of smog.

20. What name is given to the region of atmosphere where ozone is present? What is the function of ozone layer?

21.What are the major causes of water pollution?

22. Describe the water pollution caused by

i.   plant nutrients,

ii.    oil,

iii.   thermal discharges.

23. Name the common soil pollutants?

24. Do you observe any soil pollution in your neighbourhood? What efforts will you make for controlling the soil pollution?

25. Discuss various steps to control soil pollution.


I. Objective Type Questions

1. (c)                         2. (a)                   3. (d)

4. (d)                        5. (c)                   6. (d)

7. (d)                        8. (a)                   9. (b)

10. (b)


II. Fill in the Blanks


i.            5, 6

ii.            Biosphere

iii.            Stratosphere/ Thermosphere

iv.            CO

v.            Pb(C2H5)4 or leaded gasoline

vi.            H2SO4, HNO3, HNO2, etc.

vii.            N2O3, N2O5

viii.          CO.