USA: +1-585-535-1023

UK: +44-208-133-5697

AUS: +61-280-07-5697

Chemistry Topics

SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY

 1. CHEMISTRY AS A DISCIPLINE             

1.1      Chemistry as a Subject and as a Central Science

1.2      Branches of Chemistry

1.3      Careers in Chemistry 

2. MEASUREMENT OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES                                                                      

2.1       Scientific Measurements and their Importance in Chemistry

2.2       Measurement of Physical Quantities Using Appropriate Instruments

2.3       Demonstrate the Correct Handling and Use of Laboratory Equipment

2.4       Base and Derived Unit of Measurement [International System of Units (SI)

2.5       Scientific Method 

3. BASIC SAFETY LABORATORY PRACTICES

3.1      Rules and Instructions in the Laboratory

3.2      Common Hazard Symbols and their Meaning

3.3      Laboratory Emergencies and First Aid

3.4      Personal Protective Equipment

3.5      Safe Storage of Chemicals

3.6      Putting Off Fires

 

SECTION 2: ATOMIC STRUCTURE

 4. PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER

4.1      Introduction

4.2      Particulate Nature of Matter

4.3      States of Matter 

5. STRUCTURE OF ATOM

5.1      Introduction

5.2      Dalton’s Atomic Theory

5.3      Discovery of the Electron-Cathode Rays

5.4      Anode Rays or Canal Rays

5.5      Thomson’s Model of Atom

5.6      Rutherford’s Model of Atom

5.7      Discovery of the Neutron

5.8      Atomic Number and Mass Number

5.9       Isotopes

5.10    Mass Spectrometer

5.11     Nature of Electromagnetic Radiations

5.12     Planck’s Quantum Theory

5.13     Evidence for the Quantized Electronic States-Atomic Spectra

5.14     Bohr’s Model of Atom

5.15     The Dual Behaviour of Matter

5.16     Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

5.17     Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom

5.18     Quantum Numbers

5.19     Shapes of Orbitals

5.20     Energies of Orbitals

5.21     Rules for Filling of Orbitals in an Atom

5.22     Electronic Configurations of Atoms 

6.  PERIODICITY                                                        

6.1      The Need for Classification of Elements

6.2      Mendeleev’s Periodic Table

6.3      Modem Periodic Law

6.4      Cause of Similarities in the Properties of Elements in the Same Group

6.5      Electronic Configuration and the Position of Elements in the Periodic Table- The Long Form of Periodic Table

6.6      Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table

6.7      Division of Periodic Table into s-, p-, d- and f blocks on the Basis of Electronic Configurations

6.8       Classification of Elements as Metals, Non-metals and Semi-metals

6.9       Atomic Radius

6.10     Ionic Radius

6.11      Ionization Energy

6.12     Electron Affinity, Eea

6.13     Electronegativity

6.14     Electropositivity or Metallic Character

6.15     Valency

6.16     Periodic Trends and Chemical Reactivity

 

SECTION 3: CHEMICAL BONDS -

7. INTERATOMIC BONDING

7.1 Chemical Bond

7.2 Formation of Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds

7.3 Lewis Dot Structures for Some Simple Ionic Compounds

7.4 Factors which Influence the Formation of Ionic Bond

7.5 General Properties of Ionic Compounds

7.6 Formation of Covalent Bond

7.7 Lewis Dot Structures of Some Covalent Molecules

7.8 Factors which Influence the Formation of Covalent Bonds

7.9 Co-ordinate-Covalent Bond or Dative Bond

7.10 Polar Covalent Bonds

7.11 Dipole Moment

7.12 General Properties of Covalent Compounds

7.13 Covalent Character in Ionic Bond

7.14 Metallic Bond

 

8. INTERMOLECULAR BONDING

8.1 Intermolecular Forces in Covalent Compounds

8.2 Relationship between Intermolecular Forces and Structural Features

8.3 Hydrogen Bond

8.4 van der Waals’ Forces

 

9. HYBRIDIZATION AND SHAPES OF MOLECULES

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Orbital Concept of Covalent Bonding

9.3 Formation of Sigma (a) and Pi (n) Bonds

9.4 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals

9.5 Types of Hybridization

9.6 VSEPR Model and Shape of Molecular Compounds

 

SECTION 4: CONSERVATION OF MATTER AND STOICHIOMETRY

10. CARBON-12 SCALE

10.1 Carbon-12 Scale of Measurement of Mass

10.2 Relative Atomic Mass and Molecular Mass

10.3 Mole as a Unit of Measurement of  Amount of Substance

10.4 Molar Quantities of Substances

 

11. SOLUTIONS                                               

11.1 Solute, Solvent and Solution

11.2 Preparing a Standard Solution from Solid Solute

11.3 Preparation of Solutions from Liquid Solutes

11.4 Primary Standard and Secondary Standard and Standardized Solution

 

12. STOICHIOMETRY AND CHEMICAL EQUATIONS                            

12.1 Writing Correct Formula for Named Chemical Compounds

12.2 Writing the Name of Given Compound

12.3 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

12.4 Laws of Chemical Combination

12.5 Writing Mole Ratio for Chemical Species in Balanced Chemical Equations

12.6 Determining the Limiting and Excess Reagents in a Chemical Reaction

12.7 Determination of Formula of Compounds from Experimental and Given Data

12.8 Determination of Formula through Experiment

 

13. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY                                

13.1 Nucleus and Its Composition

13.2 Radioactivity

13.3 Types of Nuclear Radiations and Basic Terms Their Nature

13.4 Nuclear Stability

13.5 Radioactive Decay

13.6 Nuclear Fission and Fusion Reactions

13.7 Nuclear Reactions and Their Differences from Chemical Reaction

13.8 Applications of Radioactivity and Radioisotopes

 

SECTION 5: STATES OF MATTERSOLIDS AND LIQUIDS

 

14.1 Different States of Matter

14.2 Characteristics and Nature of Solids

14.3 Classification and Properties of Solids

14.4 Classification of Crystalline Solids Based on Interparticle Binding Forces

14.5 Diamond and Graphite

14.6 Characteristics and Nature of Liquids

14.7 Difference Between Vapour and Gas

14.8 Boiling at Reduced Pressure

 

15. KINETIC MOLECULAR MODEL, GASES AND THEIR PROPERTIES

15.1 Characteristics and Nature of Gases

15.2 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

15.3 Boyle’s Law

15.4 Charles’ Law

15.5 Avogadro’s Law

15.6 Ideal Gas Equation

15.7 balton’s Law of Partial Pressures

15.8 Diffusion of Gases

15.9 Laboratory Preparation of Gases

 

SECTION 1: ENERGY AND ENERGY CHANGES

16. ENERGY CHANGES IN PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES

16.1 Introduction

16.2 System, Surroundings and Some

16.3 Modes of Exchange of Energy

16.4 Heat Capacity

16.5 Energy and Enthalpy

16.6 Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions

16.7 Thermochemical Equations

16.8 Enthalpy Changes in Some Physical and Chemical Processes

16.9 Enthalpy Changes During Phase Transformations

16.10 Enthalpy Changes During Dissolution

16.11 Enthalpy Change During Combustion

16.12 Energy Level Diagrams and Progress of Reaction

16.13 Energy in Foods and Fuels

 

17. ENERGY CYCLES AND BOND ENTHALPIES

17.1 Enthalpy of a Reaction or Heat of a Reaction

17.2 Standard State and Standard Enthalpy of Reaction

17.3 Standard Enthalpy of Neutralization

17.4 Hess’s Law of Constant Heat Summation

17.5 Born Haber Cycle and Lattice Enthalpy

17.6 Bond Energy or Bond Enthalpy

 

SECTION 2: INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

18. PERIODIC CHEMISTRY

18.1 Reactions between Acids and Metals, Their Oxides and Trioxocarbonate(IV)S

18.2 Acidic Properties of the Oxides of Non-metals

18.3 Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Period 3 (Na -> Cl) Compounds

18.4 Thermal Stabilities, of Trioxocarbonate(IV) and Trioxonitrate(V) of Some Metals

18.5 Demonstration of Thermal Stabilitiesof Some Trioxocarbonate(IV) in the Laboratory

18.6 Silicon and Its Uses

18.7 Group-17 Elements-The Halogen Family

18.8 Electronic Configuration and Variable Oxidation States of Halogens

18.9  Acid Strength of Hydrogen Halides

 

19. TRANSITION CHEMISTRY

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Electronic Configurations

19.3 Properties of Transition Elements

19.4 Bonding in Complex Compounds

19.5 Nomenclature of Complex Compounds

19.6 Shapes of Complex Ions

19.7 Similarities and Differences between Transition Metals and Representative Metals

 

SECTION 3: CHEMICAL KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM

 20. RATE OF REACTIONS

20.1 Rate of a Reaction

20.2 Monitoring Speed of a Chemical Reaction Using a Simple Experiment

20.3 Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction

20.4 Experiment to Show How Changes in Temperature Affect the Rate of a Reaction

20.5 Analysis and Interpretation of Simple Graphs on Rates of Reaction

20.6 Collision Theory of Reaction Rates

20.7 Collision Theory and Reaction Rate

20.8 Role of Activation Energy in Chemical Reactions

20.9 Effect of Temperature and Catalyst on the Rate Constant

20.10 Deducing Rate Law from a Given Data

20.11 Zero, First and Second Order Reactions

20.12 Half Life of a First Order Reaction

20.13 Experimental Determination of Order of Reaction

 

21. EQUILIBRIUM

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Reversible and Irreversible Reactions

21.3 Kinetic Reversible Reaction Demonstration

21.4 Equilibrium in Reversible Reactions

21.5 Dynamic Nature of Chemical Equilibrium

21.6 Law of Mass Action and Equilibrium Constant

21.7 Applications of Equilibrium Constant

21.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria- Le-Chatelier’s Principle

 

SECTION 4: ACIDS AND BASES                            

22. THE CONCEPTS AND PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND BASES

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Properties of Acids

22.3 Properties of Bases

22.4 Arrhenius Concept of Acids and Bases

22.5 Bronsted-lowry Concept of Acids and Bases

22.6 Lewis Acids and Bases

 

23. ACID-BASE Titrations

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Some Important Terms

23.3 Preparing a Standard Solution

23.4 Preparation of an Acid Solution of Desired Molarity from a Concentrated One

23.5 Apparatus Used in Volumetric Analysis

23.6 Process of Titration

23.7 Recording and Treatment of Titration Data

23.8 Law of Equivalents

23.9 Acid-base Titrations

23.10 Back Titration

23.11 Double Indicator Titrations

 

24. CLASSIACATlON OF ACIDS AND BASES                                                     

24.1 Strength of Acids and Bases

24.2 ConductivitY of Solutions

 

25. CONCEPT OF pH AND pOH

25.1 Ionization of Acids and Bases

25.2 The Ionization Constant of Water and Its Ionic Product

25.3 Expressing Hydronium Ion Concentration-pH Scale

25.4 Universal Indicator

25.5 Experimental Measurement of pH of a Given Solution

25.6 Importance of pH in Our Daily Life

 

26. BUFFER SOLUTIONS

26.1 Buffer Solutions

26.2 pH of a Buffer Solution

26.3 Buffer Capacity

26.4 Uses of Buffer Solutions

 

27. ACID-BASE INDICATORS

27.1 Acid-base Indicators

27.2 The Range of an Indicator

27.3 Acid-base Titrations and Their Graphs

 

28. SOLUBILITY OF SUBSTANCES

28.1 Solubility

28.2 Factors that Affect Solubility of Substances

28.3 Solubility and Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Ionic Compounds

28.4 Solubility Product Constant

28.5 Common Ion Effect on Solubility of Ionic Salts

28.6 Experimental Determination of Solubility Product Constant of Ca(OH)2

28.7 Crystallization and Recrystallization

28.8 Precipitation of Insoluble Salts

28.9 Identification of Cations and Anions in Solution

 

29. SALTS AND CHEMICALS FROM SALT

29.1 Introduction

29.2 Salts

29.3 Hydrolysis of Salts

29.4 Laboratory Production of Salts

29.5 Chemicals From Sodium Chloride

 

SECTION 5: REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY

30. OXIDATlON-REDUCTlON PROCESSES AND OXIDISING – EDUCING AGENTS

30.1 Classical Concept of Oxidation and Reduction

30.2 Oxidation-reduction in Terms of Electron Transfer

30.3 Oxidation Number or Oxidation State

30.4 Oxidation and Reduction in Terms of Oxidation Number

30.5 Types of Redox Reactions

30.6 Functions of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

30.7 Applications of Redox Reactions

 

31. BALANCING REDOX REACTIONS         

31.1 Balancing by Ion Electron or Half Reaction Method

 

32. REDOX ITRATJONS                             

32.1 Redox Reactions as the Basis for Titration

32.2 Processes Involved in Carrying  Out Redox Titrations

32.3 Stoichiometry of Redox Reactions in Solution

32.4 Experiments on Redox Reactions

 

33. ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS                               

33.1 Electrochemistry

33.2 Electrochemical Cells

33.3 Electrode Potential (E)

33.4 Cell Potential or EMF of the Cell

33.5 Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE)

33.6 Measurement of Standard Electrode Potentials

33.7 Electrochemical Series

33.8 Applications of Electrochemical Cells

33.9 Fuel Cells

 

34. ELECTROLYTIC CELLS                   

34.1 Introduction

34.2 Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis

34.3 Mechanism and Criteria of Product Formation in Electrolytic Cells

34.4 Comparison  Between Electrochemical Cell and Electrolytic Cell

34.5 Applications of Electrolysis

34.6 Electroplating

34.7 Quantitative Aspect of Electrolysis

34.8 Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis

 

35. CORROSION OF METALS

35.1 Corrosion of Metals

35.2 Prevention of Corrosion

 

SECTION 6: CHEMISTRY OF CARBON COMPOUNDS

36. BONDING IN CARBON

36.1 Electron Structure of Carbon

36.2 Types of Overlapping and Nature of Covalent Bonds

36.3 Hybrid Orbitals in Carbon

 

37. CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

37.1 Introduction 

37.2 General Classification of Organic Compounds

 

38. IDENTIFICATION OF ELEMENTS IN ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

38.1 Determination of Components of a Given Organic Compound

 

39. SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

39.1 Separation and Purification of .I Organic Compounds

 

40. ALKANES

40.1 Introduction

40.2 Sources of Alkanes

40.3 Nomenclature and Isomerism

40.4 Structure of Alkanes

40.5 Preparation of Alkanes

40.6 Physical Properties of Alkanes

40.7 Some Important Terms

40.8 Chemical Reactions of Alkanes

40.9 Uses of Alkanes

40.10 Contribution of Alkanes to the Greenhouse Effect

 

41. ALKENES

41.1 Introduction

41.2 Structure of Alkenes

41.3 Nomenclature and Isomerism

41.4 Sources of Alkaenes

41.5 Physical Properties of Alkenes

41.6 Chemical Properties of Alkenes

41.7 Uses of Alkenes

 

42. ALKYNES

42.1 Introduction 

42.2 Nomenclature and Isomerism

42.3 Structure of Triple Bond

42.4 Preparation of Alkynes

42.5 Physical Properties of Alkynes

42.6 Chemical Reactions of Alkynes

42.7 Uses of Alkynes

 

43. BENZENE

43.1 Introduction BENZENE

43.2 Structure of Benzene

43.3 Physical Properties of Benzene

43.4 Chemical Properties of Benzene

43.5 Uses of Benzene

 

44. ALKANOLS

44.1 Classification of Alkanols

44.2 Nomenclature

44.3 Isomerism in Alkanols

44.4 Preparation of Alkanols

44.5 Structure of Alkanols

44.6 Physical Properties of Alkanols

44.7 Chemical Reactions of Alkanols

44.8 Uses of Alkanols

 

45. CARBONYL COMPOUNDS

45.1  Functional Groups of Carbonyl Compounds

45.2 Structure of Carbonyl Group

45.3 Names of Carbonyl Compounds

45.4 Isomerism in Aldehydes and Ketones

 

46. ALKANOIC ACID

46.1 Sources, Preparation and Properties of Alkanoic Acids

46.2 Systematic Names and Structure of Alkanoic Acids

46.3 Some Commercially Important Alkanoic Acids and Their Uses

 

47. ALKANOIC ACID DERIVATIVES: AMIDES

47.1 Sources, Preparation and Properties of Amides

47.2 Nomenclature and Structure of Amides

 

48. ALKANOIC ACID DERIVATIVES: ALKYLALKANOATE (ESTERS) 620

48.1 Sources, Preparation and Properties of Alkanoates

48.2 Nomenclature and Structure of Alkyl Alkanoates

48.3 Uses of Alkanoates

 

SECTION 1: CHEMISTRY INDUSTRY

49.1 Chemical Industry

49.2 Chemical Plants

 

EXTRACTION OF METALS

50.1 Introduction EXTRACTION OF METALS

50.2 Properties and Reactivity of Metals

50.3 Modes of Occurrence of Metals

50.4 Mineral Deposits in Ghana

50.5 Extraction of Metals-Metallurgy

50.6 Extraction of Gold

50.7 Extraction of Aluminium

50.8 Extraction of Iron

50.9 Local Method of Extraction of Iron

50.10 Corrosion of Metals

 

51. EXTRACTION OF CRUDE OIL AND

PETROLEUM PROCESSING 658

51.1 Composition of Petroleum

51.2 Formation of Crude Oil

51.3 Classification of Crude Oil

51.4 Mining of Petroleum

51.5 Distillation of Crude Oil

51.6 Natural Gas

51.7 Cracking and Refonning of Organic

Compounds

51.8 Quality of Gasoline-Octane Number

51.9 Sources and Uses of Petrochemicals

 

52. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

52.1 Introduction

52.2 Environmental Pollution

52.3 Air Pollution

52.4 Major Air Pollutants

52.5 Control of Air Pollution

52.6 Acid Rain

52.7 Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

52.8 Ozone Layer and its Depletion

52.9 Smogs

52.10 Water Pollution

52.11 Land Pollution

52.12 Industrial Waste

 

53. BIOTECHNOLOGY

53.1 Biotechnology

53.2 Products Obtained Using Biotechnology

53.3 Biotechnology Services

 

54. GLASS AND ITS USES

54.1 Glass

54.2 Raw Materials for Making Glass

54.3 Manufacture of Glass

54.4 Different Varieties of Glass

54.5 Uses of Glass

 

55. CEMENT AND ITS USES

55.1 Cement

55.2 Raw Material for Clinker Production

55.3 Production of Cement

55.4 Environmental Impact of Cement

Production

 

SECTION 2: BASIC BIOCHEMISTRY

56. PROTEINS

56.1 Introduction

56.2 Amino Acids

56.3 Formation of Peptides and Proteins ·

56.4 Classification of Proteins

56.5 Structure of Proteins

56.6 Denaturation of Proteins

56.7 Enzymes

56.8 Uses of Proteins

56.9 Tests of Proteins

 

57.CARBOHYDRATES

57.1Introduction

57.2 Classification of Carbohydrates

57.3 Monosaccharides

57.4 Disaccharides

57.5 Polymers of Carbohydrates-Polysaccharides

57.6 Uses of Carbohydrates

57.7 Functions of Carboh) lrates

 

58.FATS AND OILS

58.1 Introduction

58.2 General Structure of Fats and Oils

58.3 Sources of Oils and Fats

58.4 Extraction of Fats and Oils

58.5 Properties of Oils and Fats

58.6 Tests for Oils and Fats

58.7 Soaps and Synthetic Detergents

58.8 Uses of Fats and Oils

58.9 Functions of Fats in the Body

 

59.SYNTHETIC POLYMERS

59.1 Introduction

59.2 Classification of Polymers

59.3 Addition and Condensation Polymerisation

59.4 Properties of Polymers on the Basis of Their Structural Features

59.5 Modification of Properties of Polymers

59.6 Resins and Plastics

59.7 Chemical Tests on Plastics

59.8 Preparation and Uses of Polymers