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Functional Groups of Carbonyl Compounds


Aldehydes and ketones contain the most important functional group in organic chemistry-the carbonyl group, c = o . Hence, they are known as carbonyl compounds. The carbonyl functional group is present in many important biological molecules like testosterone, progesterone, insect pheromones etc. It also occurs in the molecules in our eyes which is responsible for vision. It is also involved in manufacture of many important industrial chemicals, from plastics to solvents. The functional groups along with general formulae is given in Table 45.1.


Table 45.1. Names, Functional Groups and General

                    Formulae of Alkanals and alkanones.

Aldehydes and ketones are the first oxidation products of primary and secondary alcohols respectively. Aldehydes are obtained by replacing the two terminal hydrogen atoms of alkanes by the oxygen atom while ketones are obtained by replacing the two non-terminal hydrogen atoms by oxygen. The common feature of both aldehydes and ketones is carbonyl group ( C = 0) and, therefore, they are called carbonyl compounds.